Austinville, Virginia

The Birthplace Of Stephen Fuller Austin – Founder Of The Texas Rangers And The First Commander Of The Texas Military Forces During The Texas Revolution

In 1836, this was the engraving that was created of Stephen Fuller Austin.

On November 3, 1793, Stephen Fuller Austin was born in Wythe County, Virginia, in an area that would be later named Austinville. As Stephen grew up, father and uncle operated the lead mines within Wythe County. On September 16th 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest, launched the Mexican War of Independence after publishing the “Grito de Dolores”, also known as the “Cry of Dolores”. On August 1821, after eleven years of war, Spaniard Viceroy Juan de O’Donojú signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.

Painting of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.

In 1821, at a period after the end of Spanish rule in Mexico, Stephen Fuller Austin brought 300 families to the Spanish province within Texas. In 1823, due to the lack of military forces to protect the American colonists, Austin decided to create the policing force called, “Texas Rangers”. During the course of the Texas Revolution Stephen Fuller Austin became the first commander of the Texan military forces. After Texas won its independence, Sam Houston was elected to be the first President of the Republic of Texas and he nominated Stephen Fuller Austin to be the first Secretary of State for the new nation. However, two months after obtaining that appointment, Secretary Austin caught a severe cold and passed away.

Two decades ago, private donors from Texas and Wythe County, Virginia financed the creation of a monument dedicated to Stephen Fuller Austin, at the site of the former cabin that he was born in. Three miles from the Stephen Fuller Austin Memorial Park, the Fincastle Resolutions was signed by American Revolutionaries, which influenced the tenants of Thomas Jefferson’s drafts of the Declaration of Independence.


Walter Crockett – A Former Member Of The Virginia House Of Delegates Who Was In The Point Pleasant Expedition During Lord Dunmore’s War And Who Was In Virginia’s Convention To Ratify The U.S. Constitution

Walter Crockett began his military career as a member of the militia for Augusta County, Virginia. After attaining the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, Walker Crockett served in the militias within Botetourt and Fincastle county. Later, after Fincastle county was dissolved, he served in Montgomery county. Walter Crockett served in the Point Pleasant expedition of 1774, during Lord Dunmore’s War and during the Revolutionary War he served in the military in Southwest Virginia. During the American Revolution, he also served in the Virginia House of Delegates, representing Montgomery County, and he was at Virginia’s convention to ratify the United States Consitution. In 2001, a historical marker was dedicated to former Virginia House of Delegates member Walter Crockett.

Albemarle County, Virginia, David Wiley Anderson

The Miller School – An Institution Designed By Albert Lybrock and David Wiley Anderson On Land Once Owned By Samuel Miller

In the 1874, the Miller School was designed by architects Albert Lybrock and David Wiley Anderson, five years after Samuel Miller’s death. In 1878, there was a grand opening for the school that Samuel Miller ordered to have created in Albemarle County, Virginia in his last will and testament.

Albemarle County, Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution

Locust Hill – The Birthplace Of Meriwether Lewis In Albemarle County, Virginia

Locust Hill was the birthplace of explorer Meriwether Lewis, whom lived there until the age of six, at the time his family moved to Georgia. Before joining the United States Army, Meriwether Lewis did manage the Locust Hill estate, and resided on the land for a second time during his adulthood.

In 1925, the Albemarle Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution erected a place dedicated to Locust Hill.

Hollywood Cemetery, Lieutenant Colonel Wilfred Emory Cutshaw

Wilfred Emory Cutshaw – A Former Hampton Military Academy And Virginia Military Institute Professor Who Became Richmond’s City Engineer In 1873

Wilfred Emory Cutshaw is a former professor of both the Hampton Military Academy and of the Virginia Military Insititute who served, under General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, in multiple military artillery divisions. In 1873, Cutshaw became Richmond’s City Engineer, a position that he served in until his death. Presently, Cutshaw is buried in Richmond’s Hollywood Cemetery, alongside with thousands of other Confederate veterans.

In 2015, a historical marker was dedicated to Wilfred Emory Cutshaw inside of the William Byrd Park that he had designed while he was Richmond’s Engineer.

Bill Thomas, Hollywood Cemetery, The James Monroe Memorial Foundation

The 264th Birthday Celebration Ceremony For The Fifth United States President James Monroe

On April 28th, 2022, the James Monroe Memorial Foundation hosted the 264th Birthday Celebration Ceremony for the fifth United States President James Monroe. Several leaders of chapters of the Sons of the American Revolution, Daughters of the American Revolution, Society of Colonial Wars, Society of the Cincinnati, and other historical organizations were present. In addition, Bill Thomas, the director of the James Monroe birthplace and Sara Bon-Harper, the director of the Ashland-Highland estate were present, in addition to various decendants of James Monroe.

On July 4th, 1831, James Monroe became the third and the final United States President to pass away on American Independence Day. In 1858, James Monroe’s body was taken out of the Gouverneur family’s vault, in the New York City Marble Cemetery, and was transported to Richmond, Virginia via the Jamestown steamer. James Monroe was reinterred at the Hollywood Cemetery, a cemetery that had opened a mere two years earlier, and became the first famous individual to be buried on the hilly grounds, along the James River.

Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe, Virginia State Penitentiary

The Virginia State Penitentiary That Held Former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr While He Was Awaiting Trial For Treason

In 1796, the Virginia General Assembly appropriated taxpayer dollars for the construction of a new Virginia State Penitentiary. Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe, who later hired by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson to become a ”Surveyor of Public Buildings” and the second architect for the United States Capital, took on the role of primary architect for the new penitentiary.

Portrait of the British neoclassical architect Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe.

In 1807, seven years after the opening of the penitentiary, United States President Thomas Jefferson accused the former United States Vice President Aaron Burr, whom had served under his first term as President, with treason. Aaron Burr was alleged to have spent time traveling in the western parts of the United States to devise a plan to seize land in Mexico, for the purpose of provoking a war a foreign nation, so that his followers would take up arms against the United States. Ultimately, Aaron Burr was arrested in the Mississippi Territory, within the area of the future states of Alabama, while he was with sixty of his followers attempting to travel to New Orleans. Aaron Burr was moved to the Virginia State Penitentiary while awaiting his federal court case.

The court case turned into a showdown between United States President Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr and United States Supreme Court Justice John Marshall. However, on September 1st, 1807, Aaron Burr was acquitted of all charges of treason.

Albemarle County, Virginia, Brown’s Cove, Virginia

The Seven Sons Of Benjamin Brown, Senior Whom Served As Revolutionary War Patriots

Benjamin Brown, Senior and his eldest son patented land before and after the creation of Louisa County Virginia. In 1750, after the creation of Albemarle County, King George II of England granted Benjamin Brown, Senior land east and west of the Doyles River. Benjamin Brown and his wife Sara Brown became the founders of Brown’s Cove, Virginia and an area along the foothills of the Shendoah Mountains.

The Brown’s Cove Patriots Historical Marker is dedicated to the seven sons of Benjamin Brown, Senior, who all served during the course of the American Revolution against Britain. The historical maker is located off of Blackwell Hollows Road in Brown’s Cove, next to the Doyles River, in Albemarle County, Virginia.

Charlottesville General Hospital, Charlottesville Manufacturing Company, Charlottesville, Virginia, Fluvanna County, Virginia, General John Hartwell Cocke

The Charlottesville African Church Congregation Held Meetings In The Delevan Building That Was Constructed By War Of 1812 Veteran General John Hartwell Cocke

In 1828, General John Hartfield Cocke, a War of 1812 Veteran who was a friend of then deceased United States President Thomas Jefferson, built the Delevan building, which was also known as “Mudwall”, in Charlottesville, Virginia. That same year General Cocke was also building a new Fluvanna County Courthouse and a stone jail, currently called the “Old Stone Jail” in Palmyra, Virginia.

Sketch of the University of Virginia’s anatomical theater in the foreground. In addition to General Cocke’s Delevan building, and various other local buildings, both the theatre and the Rotundra were part of the the Charlottesville General Hospital.

During the United States Civil War, also referred to as the “War Between the States”, the Delevan building became part of Charlottesville General Hospital, that the Confederate government established after the Battle of First Manassas. In addition, the Albemarle Courthouse, the Charlottesville Townhall, the anatomical theatre and the Rotundra at the University of Virginia, various homes and hotels were all part of the makeshift Charlottesville General Hospital. After the Battle of First Manassas, the Delevan Hospital, also called the Mudwall Hospital, received the first wounded troops from a nearby Virginia Center Railroad station. On March 3rd, 1865, Union General Philip Henry Sheridan, and his calvary, occupied the town of Charlottesville. At the time, the Charlottesville mayor, Charlottesville town council members and University of Virginia professors asked the Union for protection as the Charlottesville General Hospital fell under Union control. During the occupation, the Union accidently burnt down a textile mill, owned by the Charlottesville Manufacturing Company, while attempting to burn down a Virginia Center Railroad trestle in the Woolen Mills District. However, no other buildings were burnt down, during the occupation, and General George Armstrong Custer temporarily in a Charlottesville historic home called, “The Farm”.

In 1864, before the Union occupation of Charlottesville, the Charlottesville African Church Congregation was organized. In 1868, that congregation bought the property, where the Delevan Hospital had once stood, in order to erect a house of worship. In 1877 construction began on the Delevan Baptist Church, which was also known as the First Baptist Church. In 1883, construction of the baptist church was completed and it has been a place for Christians to worship ever since.

Author’s Note:

A historical marker for the Charlottesville General Hospital is posted on the grounds of the University of Virginia, in an area formerly known as Monument Square, next to where the George Roger’s Clark Monument used to be until the university relocated that historical statue to storage on July 11th, 2021.

Charlottesville, Virginia, John West

John West – A Former Slave, Barber, And Property Holder Who Lobbied The Charlottesville City Council To Create The Jefferson High School

John West, a former slave who later worked as a barber, was a resident of Charlottesville, Virginia. As a member of the Four Hundreds Club, John West and others would purchase plots of land in Charlottesville for $400. As a property owner, John West lobbied the Charlottesville City Council to create a high school for Black children. The City Council eventually agreed to fund to create a new school, which is presently called the Jefferson High School.

Brooklyn, New York, Charlottesville, Virginia, Harold Warren Billings

Artist Harold Warren Billings’s Grand Three Piece Mural Of Charlottesville, Virginia

In 1896, artist Harold Warren Billing was born in Brooklyn, New York. Throughout his life he crafted various murals of landscapes in both the states of New York and in Virginia.

Harold Warren Billing created a mural of Charlottesville with one piece dedicated to the local mountain scapes, another to the view of the city from afar, and his last piece the view of Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello from the mountains. In 1955, Harold Warren Billing’s three piece mural of Charlottesville was donated by Mrs. Inez Duff Bishop.

Charlottesville, Virginia, Edgar Allan Poe, Fort Monroe

Edgar Allan Poe’s Brief Tenure At The University Of Virginia

On Saint Valentine’s Day, in 1826, Edgar Allan Poe registered to attend undergraduate classes, in Ancient and Modern Languages, at the University of Virginia. As a student he wrote the short story, “A Tale Of The Ragged Mountains”, which was about his prospective of the Blue Ridge Mountains surrounding Charlottesville. John Allan, his adoptive father, refused to pay any of the debts that Edgar Allan Poe accumulated while pursuing higher education. Therefore, Edgar Allan Poe dropped out of the prestigious school, after a single semester, due to not having the funds to continue his enrollment.

Author’s Note:

A mere two years after Edgar Allen Poe dropped out of the University of Virginia, he enlisted in the United States Army and was stationed at Fort Monroe, a military installation named after President James Monroe.

Charlottesville, Virginia, The Rotunda at the University of Virginia

Thomas Jefferson’s Rotundra At The University Of Virginia

Former United States President Thomas Jefferson designed a Rotundra, which was structurally based on the ancient Greek Pantheon, to be built on the lawn of the University of Virginia that he founded in 1819. Construction of the Rotundra began in 1822 and it was not completed until two years after Thomas Jefferson’s death in 1828. The Rotundra was the last of the original buildings to be built on the lawn, in an area which Jefferson deemed to the “Academical Village”.

Agricultural Society of Albemarle, Albemarle County, Virginia, American Colonization Society, Brigadier General John Hartwell Cocke II, Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis, Elizabeth Kennon Cocke, Fluvanna, Virginia, Historic Fluvanna Courthouse, John Hartwell Cocke

The Historic Fluvanna Courthouse – Designed And Built By President Thomas Jefferson’s Friend Brigadier General John Hartwell Cocke II

Brigadier General John Hartwell Cocke II led four Virginia Brigades against the British during the War of 1812, a conflict that some call the “Second American Revolution”. After the war, General Cocke joined former Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the founding of the University of Virginia in 1819. The general would serve on the University of Virginia’s Board of Visitors until 1856.

Two years after the death of General Cocke’s friend Thomas Jefferson, he embarked on the designing and the construction of the Fluvanna County Courthouse and of a jailhouse, which is presently known as the “Old Stone Jail”. Both structures were built in Palmyra, a town in Fluvanna County named after King Solomon’s former trading post.

Author’s Note:

Brigadier General John Hartwell Cocke II, whom was born in Surry County, Virginia, attended school at William and Mary, where he empathized with abolitionist views from the abolitionist minded faculty on campus. In 1800, General Cocke ran for the Virginia House of Delegates and lost, never to run for that seat again. General Cocke lived in Surry County until he moved to the Bremo estate, in Fluvanna County, in 1809. On May 5th, 1817, General Cocke founded the Agricultural Society of Albemarle and devoted time towards educating the African American slaves that he inherited from his father John Hartwell Cocke and his mother Elizabeth Kennon Cocke. General Cocke became an official of the American Colonization Society, which sought to resettle freed black slaves and manumitted slaves to the African country of Liberia, and he joined the Virginia Society for the Promotion of Temperance. Soon after joining the Virginia Society for the Promotion of Temperance, he became the Vice President in 1826 and the President of that organization in 1830. As a devout Christian, not only did he not consume alcohol, he never sought ownership of any tobacco crops, despite the popularity of tobacco in the Commonwealth. Later in life his abolitionist views, which he acquired at William and Mary, subsided and he turned more into an anti-abolitionist by siding with the Confederacy during the start of the U.S. Civil War.

General Cocke had three sons, one of whom was named Philip Saint George Cocke. Philip Cocke was born in 1809, in Surry County, and attended the University of Virginia from the years of 1825 and 1827 to 1828. On July 1st, 1828, Philip Cocke entered the United States Military. In 1832, after graduating from the United States Military Academy, Philip Cocke served in Charleston, South Carolina as a second lieutenant of artillery, for the U.S. Army, during the South Carolina Nullification Crisis. On April 1st, 1834, Philip Cocke resigned his military commission so that he could marry Sally Elizabeth Courtney Bowdoin. From 1853 to 1856, Philip Cocke served as president of the Agriculture Society to Albemarle, that his father has once served as president for. In 1860, in response to John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry the year prior, Philips Cocke organized a calvary troop and the year after he joined the Confederate army. Upon joining the Virginia volunteers for the Confederate cause, his rank was reduced from Brigadier General to Colonel. During the Battle of First Manassas, which was called the First Battle of Bull Run by the Union Army, Philip Cocke commanded the fifth brigade of Confederate Virginia volunteers, as U.S. Senators, Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis. and others were looking on as spectators. Months after the battle, Philip Cocke resigned from the Confederate army, due to physical disability and nervous prostration, and committed suicide in December 26th, 1861.

The Albert and Shirley Hall Small Collections Library contains the John Hartwell Cocke Papers, the Cocke Family Papers at the University of Virginia, and other resources for researchers to review.

Amherst County, Virginia, William Harris Crawford

William Harris Crawford – A 1824 United States Presidential Candidate Who Was Born in Amherst County, Virginia

William Harris Crawford, who was born in Amherst County, Virginia, ended up residing in Georgia early in his life. Crawford served as the Secretary of War and as the Secretary of the Treasury for the United States before running for the office of United States President, as a Democrat, in 1824.

Charlottesville, Virginia, Nicholas Meriwether II

The Maplewood Cemetery – Charlottesville, Virginia’s Oldest Public Cemetery And The Gravesite Of Philanthropist Paul Goodloe McIntire

In 1827, a year after the passing of President Thomas Jefferson, the Maplewood Cemetery was established within a plot of land granted to Nicholas Meriwether II, by King George II, in 1725. War of 1812 veterans, Confederate veterans, Spanish American War veterans, Philanthropist Paul Goodloe McIntire, former slave and Civil Rights activist Fairfax Taylor, and many other members of the Charlottesville community are buried within the grounds of the Maplewood Cemetery.

Author’s Note:

In 1735, Nicholas Meriwether II added used part of his land grant, which he added 1,900 acres to, for the foundation for “The Farm”.

Albemarle County, Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States Army

The United States Bicentennial Markers At The Piedmont Virginia Community College In Albemarle County

While visiting the Piedmont Virginia Community College, I got to see a “Vanguard of Freedom Historical Marker” that was erected, in honor of the United States Army in 1975, on the campus grounds during the United States Bicentennial. The plaque, near the foothill within the college’s entrance, discusses Revolutionary War Patriots, Thomas Jefferson’s friends Captain Meriwether Lewis, whose relative Phil Anderson still lives in Charlottesville, and Lieutenant William Clark, President Zachary Taylor, Confederate Generals Stonewall Jackson and Robert Edward Lee, Confederate Colonel John Mosby, the Confederate soldiers, from Albemarle County, who served in Gettysburg during Pickett’s Charge, Charlottesville author Stephen McDowell is related to one of the few Albemarle County Confederates who survived Pickett’s Charge, Union General Winfield Scott, who was a native Virginian, Virginia Spanish American War veterans, Virginian World War I and World War II veterans.

Next to the “Vanguard of Freedom Historical Marker” is a secondary marker, attributed to the United States Bicentennial, which is dedicated to the Irishmen and Irishwomen who settled in Virginia and in other parts of the United States of America.

Edward Virginius Valentine, General Robert Edward Lee, Lexington, Virginia

The Transportation Of Edward Virginius Valentine’s “Sleeping” General Robert Edward Lee Statue To The Washington And Lee College

In 1875, two Richmond College literary societies, Mu Sigma Rho and Philologian, paid for the expenses related to transporting the General Robert Edward Lee statue, created by sculptor Edward Virginius Valentine, to the Washington and Lee College in Lexington, Virginia.

In return for paying for the travel expenses, associated with transporting the General Lee statue via rail to Lynchburg and via canal boat to Lexington, the members of both literary societies requested that the students, within their organizations, be the escorts for the General Lee statue that was being transported to the North Dormitory of the Washington and Lee College.

At the time General Robert Edward Lee’s son Custis Lee was president of the Washington and Lee College, and the statue of the “Sleeping General” was kept at the North Dormitory until a mausoleum could be constructed at the Lee Chapel.

“My experience of men has neither disposed me to think worse of them nor indisposed me to serve them; nor in spite of failures which I lament, of errors which I now see and acknowledge, or of the present aspect of affairs, do I despair of the future.

The truth is this: The march of Providence is so slow and our desires so impatient; the work of progress so immense and our means of aiding it so feeble; the life of humanity is so long, that of the individual so brief, that we only see the ebb of the advancing wave and are thus discouraged. It is history that teaches us to hope”.

– General Robert Edward Lee

Virginia War Museum

The Replica Of The “T1 240mm Gun” At The “Virginia War Museum” In Newport News

Next to one of the signs for the “Virginia War Museum” is one of the “T1 240mm Guns” that the U.S. Army began developing towards the end of World War II. In 1953, this massive artillery piece was utilized to test fire nuclear artillery rounds in the Nevada Desert, two years before the construction of a top secret installation, commonly known as Area 51.

In the 1970s, the U.S. Army transferred ownership of this “to scale prototype” of a nuclear weapon, that President Eisenhower considered deploying against Chinese and North Korean forces during the Korean War, to the Virginia War Musuem, an institution that will be celebrating it’s 100 year anniversary in 2023.

Albemarle County, Albemarle County, Virginia, Confederate Captain Marcellus Newton Moorman, General George Armstrong Custer, Jefferson Finis Davis, Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid, Stuart Horse Artillery

February 29th, 1864 – General George Armstrong Custer Leads A Calvary Charge At Rio Hill

On February 29th, 1864, General George Armstrong Custer led about 1,500 Union calvary members into Albemarle County, Virginia, for a diversionary raid, at Rio Hill, that was to pull Confederate troops away from the forces defending the outskirts of Richmond. As General Custer’s raid was occurring, Kilpatrick and Dahlgren were conducting a series of raids, outside of Richmond, in an attempt to liberate Union soldiers from the Libby Prison and to attempt to assassinate Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis.

General Custer’s men destroyed the winter camp of the Stuart Horse Artillery. In response, about 200 Confederates, under the leadership of Captain Marcellus Newton Moorman, rallied for a counter attack against General Custer’s calvary forces. Since the diversion was successful, instead of continuing the engagement, General Custer had his men withdraw from skirmish in Albemarle County.

After the end of General Custer’s raid, what became known as the “Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid” ended up becoming an abject failure, since no one was liberated at Libby Prison and no assassination attempt was made on President Davis.

General Robert Edward Lee, Hampshire County, Virginia, Hardy County, Virginia, Henry Lee III, Light-Horse Harry, Lost River State Park, William Edward West

The West Virginia Summer House Of Former Virginia Governor Henry Lee III – General Robert Edward Lee’s Father

Henry Lee III served in the American Revolutionary War, as a member of the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788, the Virginia House of Delegates, three one year terms as a Virginia Governor, under the Federalist Party, and was appointed by President George Washington, as a U.S. Army Major General, to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion. On December 26th, 1799, Henry Lee III spoke at George Washington’s funeral in Philadelphia, Pennslyvania where he famously stated, “First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen”. Soon after the first U.S. President’s death, in 1800, Henry Lee III had a summer home built in Hardy County, Virginia, a county that on December 10th, 1785, was formed by the Virginia General Assembly from parts of Hampshire County. From 1808 to 1809, Henry Lee III was imprisoned for unpaid debts. During that time he wrote the book about the American Revolutionary War, which was titled, “Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States”.

Artist William Edward West created this posthumous portrait of Virginia Governor Henry Lee III.

Presently, the historical house, of the Lee family, is situated within the “Lost River State Park” in Mathias, West Virginia. The house operates as the “Lee House Museum”, also known as the “Lee Cabin Museum”.

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First Seminole War, Joe Knetsch

A Summary Of Joe Knetsch’s Book “Flordia’s Seminole Wars 1817 – 1858”

On Christmas Day I finished reading author Joe Knetsch’s book “Flordia’s Seminole Wars 1817 – 1858”.

The First Seminole War was faught under the leadership of General Andrew Jackson, a hero of the War of 1812. In 1817, Native Americans, within the Spanish ruled colony of Flordia, were crossing the border attacking settlers in the state of Georgia. The Spanish provided aid to Seminoles, and other Native American tribes, that were responsible for the attacks. Later, General Jackson found two British men, including one British Marine, who was providing aid to the Seminoles. General Jackson had both men hung, thus risking another conflict with Britain. Later in the war, without Congressional approval, Jackson invaded the Spanish Colony, took over multiple Spanish Forts to stop the trade of arms to the Seminoles, and installed a military Govenor of Flordia. The main consequence of this war was Spain’s decision to sell Flordia to the United States, rather then defending their colony from foreign intrusion. Many wanted the Seminoles to move westward, but a tentative peace was achieved while allowing the Seminoles to remain in Flordia.

The Second Seminole War, which lasted from, Dec 23, 1835 until Aug 14, 1842, while lacking the involvement of the British, was a more complicated affair. The American Navy conducted regular patrols around the Everglades to present the Spanish, in Cuba, from trading with the Seminoles that were attacking and killing settlers in southern and northern Flordia. There were various additional Native American tribes, such as the Creeks and the Miccosukees, whom were involved in this conflict. The Army compelled the Seminoles to abide by a treaty, that yhe U.S. Senate ratified, which mandated that the Seminoles move westward and to not have the free Blacks, some of which were escaped slaves whom were living among the tribes, move with them. A major reason why the second Seminole War dragged on for seven years was not just the ability of the Seminoles to slip away into the swamps, after engaging in guerrilla warfare, or the difficulty of sending the necessary supplies for soldiers stationed at U.S. Army forts that were surrounded by marshes and swamps, but due to the unwillingness of the Secretary of War, and other political leaders, to allow the freed blacks and former slaves to live with the Seminoles. A temporary peace was negotiated, but when Seminoles attacked and killed multiple settlers Flordia politicians encouraged the United States Congress to pass, which historians consider as the predecessor to the “Homestead Act of 1862”, which was the “Armed Occupation Act of 1842”. This law allowed for rations for settlers whom returned to their properties, that Native Americans had driven them away from, and provided free land for settlers who chose to settle as long as they were armed and proved that they could protect their own property. However, while this law was passed in Congress, the continual funding of the war ignited a debate between Democratic and Whig party members over abolition and slavery, some believed that the war was supporting the institution of slavery by seeking the apprehension of escaped slaves living along the Seminoles. During the Second Seminole War Winfield Scott, later a prominent Union leader in the U.S. Civil War, and Colonel Zachary Taylor, who would later be a hero of the Mexican American War and a future U.S. President, were leading some of the U.S. Army forces. While hundreds is Seminole warriors were killed in the second war, there were still a remainder of natives in the Everglades and other parts of southern Flordia.

Another period of peace, which almost led to war again after various attacks led to the deaths of various other settlers. Many Flordian settlers wanted another war because they wanted the remainder of the Seminoles removed from Flordia. Under pressure from politicians, and the settlers that influenced them, the U.S. Army increased it’s patrols of the Everglades and surveyors came out to plot lands for new settlers that were to arrive near the native territories. On December 20th, 1855, Seminoles had already seen growing evidence that they would eventually be driven out of their lands, by new settlers, so they went on the offensive, by attacking Lieutenant George Lucas Hartstuff’s command, which lead to the start of the Third Seminole War. The last Seminole War, which started as Jefferson Davis was ending his term as Secretary of War, did not consist of large battles between hundreds of soldiers and native warriors, like the previous two conflicts, but rather it was a war of attrition. A summer campaign, which was a continuation of Windfield Scott’s strategy in the Second Seminole War, involved soldiers burning down dens, villages, and food storages that the Seminoles had scattered across the Everglades. Many Seminoles, after losing their supplies of food, raised the white flag of surrender and after three years Seminoles, including their leader Billy Bowlegs, were sent westward out of their native lands. In fact, the last of the Seminole Wars was described by Doctor James Covington as “Billy Bowlegs War”.