Edward Virginius Valentine, General Robert Edward Lee, Lexington, Virginia

The Transportation Of Edward Virginius Valentine’s “Sleeping” General Robert Edward Lee Statue To The Washington And Lee College

In 1875, two Richmond College literary societies, Mu Sigma Rho and Philologian, paid for the expenses related to transporting the General Robert Edward Lee statue, created by sculptor Edward Virginius Valentine, to the Washington and Lee College in Lexington, Virginia.

In return for paying for the travel expenses, associated with transporting the General Lee statue via rail to Lynchburg and via canal boat to Lexington, the members of both literary societies requested that the students, within their organizations, be the escorts for the General Lee statue that was being transported to the North Dormitory of the Washington and Lee College.

At the time General Robert Edward Lee’s son Custis Lee was president of the Washington and Lee College, and the statue of the “Sleeping General” was kept at the North Dormitory until a mausoleum could be constructed at the Lee Chapel.

“My experience of men has neither disposed me to think worse of them nor indisposed me to serve them; nor in spite of failures which I lament, of errors which I now see and acknowledge, or of the present aspect of affairs, do I despair of the future.

The truth is this: The march of Providence is so slow and our desires so impatient; the work of progress so immense and our means of aiding it so feeble; the life of humanity is so long, that of the individual so brief, that we only see the ebb of the advancing wave and are thus discouraged. It is history that teaches us to hope”.

– General Robert Edward Lee

Virginia War Museum

The Replica Of The “T1 240mm Gun” At The “Virginia War Museum” In Newport News

Next to one of the signs for the “Virginia War Museum” is one of the “T1 240mm Guns” that the U.S. Army began developing towards the end of World War II. In 1953, this massive artillery piece was utilized to test fire nuclear artillery rounds in the Nevada Desert, two years before the construction of a top secret installation, commonly known as Area 51.

In the 1970s, the U.S. Army transferred ownership of this “to scale prototype” of a nuclear weapon, that President Eisenhower considered deploying against Chinese and North Korean forces during the Korean War, to the Virginia War Musuem, an institution that will be celebrating it’s 100 year anniversary in 2023.

Albemarle County, Albemarle County, Virginia, Confederate Captain Marcellus Newton Moorman, General George Armstrong Custer, Jefferson Finis Davis, Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid, Stuart Horse Artillery

February 29th, 1864 – General George Armstrong Custer Leads A Calvary Charge At Rio Hill

On February 29th, 1864, General George Armstrong Custer led about 1,500 Union calvary members into Albemarle County, Virginia, for a diversionary raid, at Rio Hill, that was to pull Confederate troops away from the forces defending the outskirts of Richmond. As General Custer’s raid was occurring, Kilpatrick and Dahlgren were conducting a series of raids, outside of Richmond, in an attempt to liberate Union soldiers from the Libby Prison and to attempt to assassinate Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis.

General Custer’s men destroyed the winter camp of the Stuart Horse Artillery. In response, about 200 Confederates, under the leadership of Captain Marcellus Newton Moorman, rallied for a counter attack against General Custer’s calvary forces. Since the diversion was successful, instead of continuing the engagement, General Custer had his men withdraw from skirmish in Albemarle County.

After the end of General Custer’s raid, what became known as the “Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid” ended up becoming an abject failure, since no one was liberated at Libby Prison and no assassination attempt was made on President Davis.

General Robert Edward Lee, Hampshire County, Virginia, Hardy County, Virginia, Henry Lee III, Light-Horse Harry, Lost River State Park, William Edward West

The West Virginia Summer House Of Former Virginia Governor Henry Lee III – General Robert Edward Lee’s Father

Henry Lee III served in the American Revolutionary War, as a member of the Continental Congress from 1786 to 1788, the Virginia House of Delegates, three one year terms as a Virginia Governor, under the Federalist Party, and was appointed by President George Washington, as a U.S. Army Major General, to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion. On December 26th, 1799, Henry Lee III spoke at George Washington’s funeral in Philadelphia, Pennslyvania where he famously stated, “First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen”. Soon after the first U.S. President’s death, in 1800, Henry Lee III had a summer home built in Hardy County, Virginia, a county that on December 10th, 1785, was formed by the Virginia General Assembly from parts of Hampshire County. From 1808 to 1809, Henry Lee III was imprisoned for unpaid debts. During that time he wrote the book about the American Revolutionary War, which was titled, “Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the United States”.

Artist William Edward West created this posthumous portrait of Virginia Governor Henry Lee III.

Presently, the historical house, of the Lee family, is situated within the “Lost River State Park” in Mathias, West Virginia. The house operates as the “Lee House Museum”, also known as the “Lee Cabin Museum”.

HamiltonHistoricalRecords.com

The Four Year Anniversity Of HamiltonHistoricalRecords.com

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First Seminole War, Joe Knetsch

A Summary Of Joe Knetsch’s Book “Flordia’s Seminole Wars 1817 – 1858”

On Christmas Day I finished reading author Joe Knetsch’s book “Flordia’s Seminole Wars 1817 – 1858”.

The First Seminole War was faught under the leadership of General Andrew Jackson, a hero of the War of 1812. In 1817, Native Americans, within the Spanish ruled colony of Flordia, were crossing the border attacking settlers in the state of Georgia. The Spanish provided aid to Seminoles, and other Native American tribes, that were responsible for the attacks. Later, General Jackson found two British men, including one British Marine, who was providing aid to the Seminoles. General Jackson had both men hung, thus risking another conflict with Britain. Later in the war, without Congressional approval, Jackson invaded the Spanish Colony, took over multiple Spanish Forts to stop the trade of arms to the Seminoles, and installed a military Govenor of Flordia. The main consequence of this war was Spain’s decision to sell Flordia to the United States, rather then defending their colony from foreign intrusion. Many wanted the Seminoles to move westward, but a tentative peace was achieved while allowing the Seminoles to remain in Flordia.

The Second Seminole War, which lasted from, Dec 23, 1835 until Aug 14, 1842, while lacking the involvement of the British, was a more complicated affair. The American Navy conducted regular patrols around the Everglades to present the Spanish, in Cuba, from trading with the Seminoles that were attacking and killing settlers in southern and northern Flordia. There were various additional Native American tribes, such as the Creeks and the Miccosukees, whom were involved in this conflict. The Army compelled the Seminoles to abide by a treaty, that yhe U.S. Senate ratified, which mandated that the Seminoles move westward and to not have the free Blacks, some of which were escaped slaves whom were living among the tribes, move with them. A major reason why the second Seminole War dragged on for seven years was not just the ability of the Seminoles to slip away into the swamps, after engaging in guerrilla warfare, or the difficulty of sending the necessary supplies for soldiers stationed at U.S. Army forts that were surrounded by marshes and swamps, but due to the unwillingness of the Secretary of War, and other political leaders, to allow the freed blacks and former slaves to live with the Seminoles. A temporary peace was negotiated, but when Seminoles attacked and killed multiple settlers Flordia politicians encouraged the United States Congress to pass, which historians consider as the predecessor to the “Homestead Act of 1862”, which was the “Armed Occupation Act of 1842”. This law allowed for rations for settlers whom returned to their properties, that Native Americans had driven them away from, and provided free land for settlers who chose to settle as long as they were armed and proved that they could protect their own property. However, while this law was passed in Congress, the continual funding of the war ignited a debate between Democratic and Whig party members over abolition and slavery, some believed that the war was supporting the institution of slavery by seeking the apprehension of escaped slaves living along the Seminoles. During the Second Seminole War Winfield Scott, later a prominent Union leader in the U.S. Civil War, and Colonel Zachary Taylor, who would later be a hero of the Mexican American War and a future U.S. President, were leading some of the U.S. Army forces. While hundreds is Seminole warriors were killed in the second war, there were still a remainder of natives in the Everglades and other parts of southern Flordia.

Another period of peace, which almost led to war again after various attacks led to the deaths of various other settlers. Many Flordian settlers wanted another war because they wanted the remainder of the Seminoles removed from Flordia. Under pressure from politicians, and the settlers that influenced them, the U.S. Army increased it’s patrols of the Everglades and surveyors came out to plot lands for new settlers that were to arrive near the native territories. On December 20th, 1855, Seminoles had already seen growing evidence that they would eventually be driven out of their lands, by new settlers, so they went on the offensive, by attacking Lieutenant George Lucas Hartstuff’s command, which lead to the start of the Third Seminole War. The last Seminole War, which started as Jefferson Davis was ending his term as Secretary of War, did not consist of large battles between hundreds of soldiers and native warriors, like the previous two conflicts, but rather it was a war of attrition. A summer campaign, which was a continuation of Windfield Scott’s strategy in the Second Seminole War, involved soldiers burning down dens, villages, and food storages that the Seminoles had scattered across the Everglades. Many Seminoles, after losing their supplies of food, raised the white flag of surrender and after three years Seminoles, including their leader Billy Bowlegs, were sent westward out of their native lands. In fact, the last of the Seminole Wars was described by Doctor James Covington as “Billy Bowlegs War”.

Fort Pulaski, General Robert Edward Lee, Joseph King Fenno Mansfield, Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski of Ślepowron

Fort Pulaski – Named After A Revolutionary War Hero And Constructed Under The Leadership Of Army Engineers Robert Edward Lee And Joseph King Fenno Mansfield

Fort Pulaski, located in the Cockspur Island in Georgia, is named after an American Revolutionary War Hero, Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski of Ślepowron, who died at the Battle of Savannah on October 9th, 1779. In 1829, Robert Edward Lee, who recently graduated from West Point, was assigned to work as the assistant engineer for the construction of Fort Pulaski. Lee worked on the preliminary construction of the fort until 1831, the same year that he married Mary Custis, when Joseph King Fenno Mansfield, the Second Lieutenant of the Army Corps of Engineers in charge of building southern coastal defenses, took over the construction efforts. Mansfield oversaw the construction of Fort Pulaski, which was designed to mount 146 cannons, until its completion in 1847.

Author’s Note:

The year before Fort Pulaski was completed, Captain Robert Edward Lee was sent to fight in the Siege of Vera Cruz, during the start of the Mexican-American War, where Lee was frequently engaged in reconnaissance behind enemy lines and where he saved a wounded Mexican drummer boy who was trapped under the weight of a dying Mexican soldier.

During the Mexican-American War, Joseph King Fenno Mansfield served as the chief engineer for General Zachary Taylor, a future United States President. Mansfield was promoted to major for his service at Fort Brown, Texas. Later in the war, Mansfield was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel after he was wounded in his leg at the Battle of Monterey and he received a third promotion to Colonel after his service at the Battle of Buena Vista.

Photograph of Joseph King Fenno Mansfield during the United States Civil War.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Dorothy Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward, Farmville, Virginia

The Prince Edward County Courthouse – The Site Of A Virginia Court Case That Was Part Of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

In 1939, the most recent version of the Prince Edward County Courthouse was built to replace another courthouse that was built in the 1870s.

In the 1940s and 1950s, the segregated schools for blacks were experiencing overcrowding in Prince Edward County, Virginia. In response, Barbara Jones, a student from the Robert Russa Moton High School in Farmville, organized a student strike on April 23, 1951, which lasted for four weeks. The Prince Edward County School Board, in spite of the strike, refused to consider building a new school for the black students. Attorney Oliver Hill and Attorney Spottswood W. Robinson III met with the parents of the students and agreed to represent them if they would agree to ask for the abolition of segregation, in addition to the creation of equal facilities. On May 23, 1951, attorney Spottswood W. Robinson III completed and filed, with the Prince Edward County Clerk of Court, the case Dorothy Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward, a court case was later incorporated into the United State Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling.

In 1959, five years after the Brown ruling, the Edward County Board of Supervisors, voted to shut down all of the existing public schools in the county. This resulted in fences and “no trespassing” signs being erected around all of the local public schools. During the period of “mass resistance” to integration between blacks and whites in public schools, the courthouse was the location of legal battles, which were supported by the NAACP and other groups, that were against the public school closures.

Gunston Hall, Lorton, Virginia

October 3rd, 1987 – U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor Speaks At Gunston Hall

Portrait of Justice Sandra Day O’Conner which is located in the U.S. Supreme Court building in Washington, D.C.

On October 3rd, 1987, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor gave a speech about the lasting legacy of my relative George Mason IV, on the grounds of Gunston Hall in Lorton, Virginia.

In 2006, Justice O’Connor retired from the U.S. Supreme Court to tend for her husband, whom had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease.

Fort Monroe, Napoleon Bonaparte

In 1819 Napoléon Bonaparte’s Aide General Simon Bernard Was The Chief Engineer For The Construction Of Fort Monroe In Virginia

Édouard Baille’s painting of French General Simon Bernard.

In 1819, after the United States Congress approved the construction of a set of coastal forts, General Simon Bernard was named the Chief Engineer for Fort Monroe. General Simon Bernard was an aid to Napoléon Bonaparte, a French military leader who was siding with the United States after the conclusion of the War of 1812.

Virginia Supreme Court

September 2nd, 2021 – The Virginia Supreme Court Rules That The General Robert Edward Lee Monument In Richmond, Virginia May Be Removed

On September 2nd, 2021, the Virginia Supreme Court ruled that Governor Ralph Northam’s order to have the General Robert Edward Lee Monument would stand. The plaintiffs, represented by former Republican Party of Virginia Chairman Pat McSweeney, claimed that the original covenant superseded any order for the removal of the General Lee Monument. This lawsuit originally began when a decendant of General Lee filed suit. When the family member dropped out of the case, give additional property owners were added. To date, there is a possibility of this case being appealed to the United States Supreme Court.

Charles Carter Lee, General Robert Edward Lee, Winsor Farm

General Robert Edward Lee’s Last Camp Site After His Surrender At The Appomattox Courthouse

After surrendering at the Appomattox Courthouse General Robert Edward Lee skipped the official surrender ceremony. On April 14th, General Lee visited his brother Charles Carter Lee. However, since General Lee did not want to inconvenience his brother, he ended up camping on the property of the Gilliams Family. This was the last time that General Lee camped during his journey from Appomattox back to his family’s home in Richmond, Virginia.

Brigadier General Charles Gustavus Ulrich Dahlgren, Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick, Colonel Ulric Dalhgren, General George Armstrong Custer, Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid, Major General James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart

The Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid Of Richmond

In 1864, Union Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick devised a plan to send hundreds of calvary soldiers to liberate Union prisoners in Belle Isle, burn down the Confederate Capital of Richmond, and to assassinate Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis. Colonel Ulric Dalhgren, the son of Union Navy Rear Admiral John Adolphus Bernard Dahlgren and nephew of Confederate Brigadier General Charles Gustavus Ulrich Dahlgren, and Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick lead the Union forces during that calvary raid.

Sketch of Colonel Ulrich Dalhgren.

General George Armstrong Custer led a force to attack the Confederacy, outside of Charlottesville, as a distraction from the main Kilpatrick-Dahlgren raid in Richmond. Major General James Ewell Brown “Jeb” Stuart took command of the counter attack, against General Custer’s soldiers, after Stuart’s Horse Artillery was captured. General Custer withdrew his forces from the Charlottesville area after hearing train whistle, which he took to be Confederate reinforcements.

Outside of Richmond, the Union Calvary burned down various structures along the way to the city, but faced more resistance than expected. Ultimately, the mission failed as no prisoners were released, the City of Richmond was not burnt down, only buildings outside of the city were burnt, and President Jefferson Davis was not assasinated.

Author’s Note:

While reading the book, “Kill Jeff Davis”, which is about the attempted raid on the Confederate Capital of Richmond, I decided to visit one of the historical markers dedicated to that military action during the United States Civil War.

Charlottesville, Virginia, Lewis and Clark Exploratory Center

July 10th, 2021 – The City Of Charlottesville Removed Three Monuments Donated By Paul Goodloe McIntire

Paul Goodloe McIntire donated four monuments to the city of Charlottesville, Virginia. On Monday June 7th, 2021 the Charlottesville City Council voted to remove the General Robert Edward Lee and the Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson Monuments. On July 10th, 2021, the same day that the General Lee and the General Jackson Monuments were being removed, the Charlottesville City Council voted, during a mid day Zoom meeting, to remove the Meriwether Lewis, William Clark and Sacagawea Monument to the Lewis & Clark Exploratory Center in Charlottesville.

Athens of the South, Charlottesville Manufacturing Company, Charlottesville, Virginia, General George Armstrong Custer, General Philip Henry Sheridan, Henry Clay Marchant, Virginia Center Railroad

The Charlottesville Textile Mill, Within The “Athens Of The South”, That Was Accidently Burnt Down By Union Forces In March 1865

In 1795, a grist mill, a mile from Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, was established in the area around Moore’s Creek and the Rivanna River. In the early 1800s, locks and dams were built around the grist mill and the area became known as the “Athens of the South” and as the “Port of Piraeus”. After a textile mill was established by the Farish, Jones and Company, near the existing grist mill, the area later became known as the Charlottesville Woolen Mills. In 1852, John A. Marchant retained ownership of Farish, Jones and Company and renamed it to the Charlottesville Manufacturing Company.

During the course of the United States Civil War, the textiles produced uniforms for the Confederate military. In 1864, Henry Clay Marchant, the son of John A. Marchant, bought the Charlottesville Manufacturing Company. Towards the end of the war, during General Philip Henry Sheridan’s occupation of the city, the Union accidently burnt down the textile mill while attempting to burn down a railroad trestle, that had been built a few yards away from the mill for the Virginia Center Railroad in 1850. The same month that General Sheridan occupied Charlottesville, General George Armstrong Custer established a headquarters at a historic home known as, “The Farm”.

In 1867, a new brick textile mill was created, by the Charlottesville Manufacturing Company, and uniforms continued to be processed until the closure of the mill in 1964.