Old Trails Museum, Standin' On The Corner Park, U.S. Highway Numbers System, Winslow Arizona

Historic Winslow Arizona

Winslow Arizona in 1890.
Winslow Arizona in 1890. Photo Credit: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration

The city of Winslow, Arizona falls along the former National Old Trails Highway that was established in 1914.  Once the U.S. Highway Numbers System was established, in 1956, the National Old Trails Highway was renamed to Route 66.  After, Route 66 was decommissioned in 1985, the road was renamed again to Old Route 66.

Downtown Winslow has the Standin’ On The Corner Park which commemorates the song written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey called, “Take It Easy”.

The Old Trails Museum, contains exhibits on the Hopi, Laguna, and Navajo Native Americans, in addition to the former pioneer Mormons who had once lived in the city.

Boulder Dam, Hoover Dam, Hoover Dam Lodge, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President Herbert Clark Hoover, U.S. Department of the Interior - Office of Reclamation, Uncategorized

The Hoover Dam Lodge’s Photos of the Construction of the Hoover Dam

The Hoover Dam Lodge has a multitude of historical photos relating to the construction of the Hoover Dam, formerly known as the Boulder Dam, under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s administration.  The Hoover Dam, amungst the Grand Coulee Dam and other new dams in the United States, were approved to put people to work during the period of the “Great Depression”.

Author’s Note:

The Boulder Canyon Project Act, which allocated funds for the construction of the Boulder Dam, was approved by Congress in 1928 and signed into law by President Herbert Clark Hoover.  According the U.S. Department of the Interior – Office of Reclamation another act of congress changed the name of the Boulder Dam to the Hoover Dam in February 14, 1931.

Hoover Dam, The Lost City Museum

The Lost City Museum

When I started my cross country trip to Virginia, I took a detour to see the “Lost City Musuem” in Overton, Nevada. This site used to be inhabited by the Anasazi Indians from 300 to 700 B.C. and was the first Indian civilization to build a city within the state of Nevada.

During the construction of the Hoover Dam, relics from the former Indian city was discovered by government workers. Due to this significant historical find, the CCC conservation built the Boulder Dam Park Museum on the site of the Pueblo Grande de Nevada Archelogical Area. Replicas of huts and storage areas built by members of the ancient city lay outside of the musuem.

The former Native American site also has a plaque recognizing a part of Mormon pioneer history, that occurred due to the Mormon Saint Thomas settlement by Lake Meade on January of 1865.


Cross Country Trip, Uncategorized

Series of Articles on My Cross Country Trip

Six months ago, on Valentines Day, I ended my over 7,000 mile cross country trip from San Jose, California to Fairfax, Virginia and back.  I took Interstate 40 on my way to Virginia, which ran along some parts of old Route 66 in Arizona, and I took Highway 10 along my way back.

It truly was a life changing trip, which motivated me to start my own history website, where I got to see my extended family in Oklahoma, my immediate family in Virginia and Maryland, and a multitude of art galleries and historical sites.

To explain the magnitude of this entire trip, and all I learned from it, I’ll be publishing an article every day about a different part of my trip for the next month.  I hope you enjoy this segment of my history archives, as I take a temporary break from writing about the fascinating history of the Bay Area.

Hermann Oberth, Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Nazi V-2 Rocket Scientists, Operation Paperclip, President Harry S. Truman, President Thomas Woodrow Wilson, The Rocket Into Planetary Space, Vergeltungswaffen-1 Rocket, Vergeltungswaffen-2 Rocket, Wernher Van Braun

The Competition for the Nazi V-2 Rocket Scientists Amung France, Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union

Wernher Von Braun Rocket Experiment In Duetchland
Dr. Wernher Von Braun, second from the right side of the photo, experimenting on rockets with other Germans in the 1930s. Photo Credits: National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Marshall Space Flight Center

In the 1930s, German scientists were the first in the world to build liquid fueled rockets, with the potential to reach the atmosphere of the earth, after their development of the Vergeltungswaffen-1 Rocket.

Hitler commanded that the space program, for the Vergeltungswaffen-1 Rocket (which during the war was also called the Vergeltungswaffen-1 Flying Bomb), be converted to a weapons program, so that the rockets could be used to hit structural targets of adversaries in Europe.  On June 13, 1944 the first Vergeltungswaffen-1 Rocket attacks against London occurred a week after the D-Day landings.

Before, the first rocket attacks against London occurred, a larger ballistic missile was already in development. In October 3, 1942, the Vergeltungswaffen-2 Rocket became the first device to reach space after flying 118 miles.  On September 8, 1944, Vergeltungswaffen-2 Rockets were launched for an attack against Paris.

A V-2 rocket is prepared for launch in Cuxhaven, Germany. 1944.
A 1944 photo of a V-2 rocket on a launchpad in Cuxhaven, Germany. Photo Credit: Rare Historical Photos

After the end of World War II, part of the negotiations between Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the United States involved dividing the scientists who had worked on the Vergeltungswaffen-1 and the Vergeltungswaffen-2 rocket programs between each country.  In 1946, President Harry S. Truman’s administration and the Stalin regime in the Soviet Union had a severe deterioration in relations as highlighted by the Miller Center of the University of Virginia.  The “Russia Report” that had been created by Truman’s white house aids, further added to Truman’s determination to counter the expansion of the Soviet Empire.  This deterioration of relations between the Soviet Union and the United Stated, further contributed to the, then deemed, national security necessity of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency’s Operation Paperclip.

In the United States, several scientists and Vergeltungswaffen-2 rockets, were taken to the U.S. Army’s White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, to test them for the space program.  Wernher Van Braun, whom was compelled to study rocketry after reading Hermann Oberth’s book The Rocket Into Planetary Space, and other German scientists working for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics that were given new identities under Operation Paperclip, were instrumental in building the Saturn V rocket that took the first humans to the moon.

Doctor Wernher von Braun explains the Saturn Launch System to President John F. Kennedy at Cape Canaveral, Florida on November 16, 1963.
On November 16, 1963, Doctor Wernher von Braun explains the Saturn V Launch System to President John Fitzgerald Kennedy at Cape Canaveral, Florida. Photo Credit: New York Post

Respectively, France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union also had different German scientists, who had worked on the Vergeltungswaffen-1 and the Vergeltungswaffen-2 rocker programs, work on their missile and space programs.

Author’s Note:

The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was formed after the Naval Appropriations Act, which had a rider creating NACA for the regulation of flight, was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson in March 3, 1915.  NACA was the predecessor to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and was dissolved October 1, 1958.

Further References:

Behind The Secret Plan to Bring Nazi Scientists to the U.S.

Records of the Secretary of Defense (RG 330)

How Britain Put Nazi’s Top Men to Work

German Legacy in Soviet Rocketry

Operation Paperclip