Columbia, Texas, Spanish Texas, Texas

The Many Capitals Of Spanish Texas, The Republic Of Texas And The State Of Texas

Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, can considered the first capital of Texas, since at the beginning of Spanish Texas there was no intermediate provincial capital of the area. Ysleta, said to be the first settlement in Texas, had Santa Fe, New Mexico, as its capital. Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico, became the first provincial capital of Texas in 1686. In 1721 the Marqués de Aguayo established headquarters at Los Adaes (present Robeline, Louisiana), which remained the capital of Texas for half a century. From 1772 until 1824 San Antonio was the seat of government, although Manuel Antonio Cordero y Bustamante made his headquarters in 1806 in the Old Stone Fort at Nacogdoches; in 1810 Manuel María de Salcedo had his headquarters there for three months.

Sketch of the capitol building of Texas in Colombia from 1839-1856.

After the Mexican War of Independence, Texas was united with Coahuila, with Saltillo as the provincial capital. On March 9, 1833, Monclova was made capital of Coahuila and Texas. The Department of Texas had become a subdistrict of the province, and San Felipe de Austin was named the capital of the colony of Texas in 1824. Therefore the conventions of 1832 and 1833 met at San Felipe, as did the Consultation of 1835, which organized a provisional government for Texas as a separate Mexican state. Mexico did not recognize the separation. The Convention of 1836, which declared Texas independent, met at Washington-on-the-Brazos. Harrisburg and Galveston were both occupied by President David G. Burnet as temporary capitals, and after the battle of San Jacinto, Burnet and the cabinet met at Sam Houston’s headquarters near the battlefield. The government then returned briefly to Galveston before moving to Velasco, which served as the seat of government through the end of September 1836.

A building used for the capital of Austin, Texas before the current capital structure was built.

In October 1836 Columbia, now West Columbia, became the first capital of an elected government of the Republic of Texas. Columbia remained capital for three months. Houston was then selected as a temporary capital, and President Sam Houston ordered the government to move there on December 15, 1836. Houston was capital from April 19, 1837, until 1839. A capital-site commission selected a site near La Grange, Fayette County, in 1838 and Congress passed a bill to build the capital there, but Houston vetoed it. The commission purchased 7,735 acres along the Colorado River comprising the hamlet of Waterloo and adjacent lands. The city of Austin, which is the current capital location, was approved as the capital on January 19, 1839. President Mirabeau B. Lamar and his cabinet arrived in Austin on October 17, 1839.

Fearing an attack on Austin by the Mexicans, President Houston ordered the government to return to Houston on March 13, 1842. Washington-on-the-Brazos became capital by executive order in September of that year, and the order spawned the Archives War when President Houston attempted to move the archives from Austin. The Constitution of 1845 provided that Austin be capital until 1850, when a vote was required to choose the permanent capital. Austin received 7,674 votes, a majority. Another election was scheduled for twenty years later and held in 1872. Austin won with 63,297 votes, compared to Houston’s 35,188 and Waco’s 12,776.

Mexico, President James Knoc Polk, President John Tyler, Republic Of Texas, Texas

December 29, 1845 – The Republic Of Texas Was Admitted As The 28th State

President John Tyler, had tried from 1844 to 1845 to have the Republic of Texas annexed to the United States. However, the proposal did not get sufficient votes in the U.S. senate due to concerns of the annexation potentially starting a war with Mexico.

Painting of President James Knox Polk.

When President James Knox Polk became president he supported the annexation of Texas and the proposal to purchase land from Mexico so that the United States could be expanded to the Pacific Ocean. On December 29, 1845, Texas was admitted as a state.

Battle of the Alamo, Mexico, Texas

Battle Of The Alamo – The Beginning Of Texas’s War Of Independence From Mexico

Fourteen years after Mexico won its independence from Spain, the Mexican Province of Texas sought independence from Mexico, after white settlers sought to merge Texas with the more economically vibrant United States.

On December 1835, caucasian soldiers occupied the Alamo, which was a former mission building established under Mexico’s Spanish rule that was converted into a fort. On Febuary 23, 1836, the Battle of the Alamo began when thousands of Mexican soldiers, under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, began a siege of the Alamo to repel the occupiers of the fort. Although vastly outnumbered, the Alamo’s 200 defenders, commanded by James Bowie and William Travis, were able to withhold the thousands of soldiers from entering the structure for thirteen days. Frontiersman David Crockett, was one of the many Texans to die in the battle, which would eventually symbolize Texan resilience to oppression.

Years after the Battle of the Alamo, the event was utilized as part of the justification for the United States to fight to capture land from Mexico in the Mexican-American War.

Los Adaes, Los Adaes, Texas, Louisiana, Province of Texas, Robeline, Louisiana, Texas

Los Adaes – The Site In Louisiana That Served As The Capital Of The Spanish Province Of Texas

Los Adaes, a Spanish owned colonial territory which would later become part of the state of Louisiana, was the second provisional capital of the Province of Texas from 1721 until its abandonment in 1773.

The Spanish had established a mission called San Miguel de Cuellar de los Adaes, and a presidio, Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Los Adaes by the former capital of Texas. In 1770, the capital of Texas was moved to San Antonio, which led to the abandonment of the town.

Presently, the Los Adaes State Historic Site, in Robeline, Louisiana, preserves the lands within the former state capital, which turned into a ghost town in the late 1770s.