In 1851, three years after the end of the Mexican-American War, William McDaniel purchased land from Juan Manuel Vaca, north of Fairfield within Solano County, California. William McDaniel agreed that a one square mile area would be used to create a township. On Dec. 13, 1851, a township called “Vacaville” was established. In 1892, Vacaville, California was incorporated as a city.
After the Republic of Texas was added as the 28th states, the American and Mexican governments disagreed if the border do Texas ended at the Neuces or at the Rio Grande rivers. In November, Polk sent U.S. Diplomat John Slidell to Mexico to seek boundary adjustments in return for the U.S. government’s settlement of the claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico, and to so that an offer could be made to purchase California and New Mexico. After the mission failed, the U.S. army, under General Zachary Taylor, advanced to the mouth of the Rio Grande, the river that the state of Texas claimed as its southern boundary.
Mexican Tripp’s killed nine U.S. soldiers and captured others who were in the the area that Mexico claimed as their own territory, and not in the state of Texas. President James Knox Polk advocated for war and on May 13, 1846, the U.S. Congress voted fo declare war against Mexico over the territorial dispute. During the Mexican American War, President Polk offered to buy California and New Mexico, from the Mexican government. Mexico refused to make the land sale, until the country surrender at the end of the war.
In 1835, Antonio López de Santa Anna had established himself as a dictator in Mexico. Among Anglo-American colonists and Tejanos alike, the call for Texas independence became more prominent after the start of the dictator’s reign.
On March 2, 1836, during the Battle of the Alamo, a delegation at Washington-on-the-Brazos adopted the Texas Declaration of Independence, which created the Republic of Texas, a country independent from Mexico.
After Texas became it’s own republic, and after the Texan revolutionary soldiers’ loss at the Battle of the Alamo, soldiers led by Sam Houston would fight in the Battle of San Jacinto to secure a victory against the Mexican army.
Eventually Mexico would recognize the independence of Republic of Texas.
The Mexican War of Independence was a series of revolts against Spanish colonial rule, which began after Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s independence speech on September 16, 1810, when members of the Spanish Inquisition enforcers were coming to arrest him. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s speech compelled hundreds of oppressed Native Americans to drive out the Spanish on the day of his speech. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla would lead an army that grew to a force of 80,000 soldiers, but his first revolt failed when he refused to send his army to take over Mexico City. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was eventually captured and killed by a firing squad.
During the third organized revolt, when a Spanish General in Mexico offered to an alliance with the revolutionaries, Mexican revolutionaries finally secured independence from Spain.
However, there were severe economic issues after the war that led to the reduced productivity of mines, plantations, farms and other businesses. Therefore, the newly formed Mexican government had little effectiveness managing the Providence of Texas and the more remote parts of California, that were the Catholic missions were established under Spanish rule. This mismanagement, would lead to the Providence of Texas forming its own country after Mexico was began rule by a dictator.
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was a liberal Catholic priest, who questioned several elements of church doctrine, such as the requirement of priests to be celibate and the acknowledgement of a virgin birth of Jesus, during the period of the Spanish Inquisition. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla ran against the colonial norm by having a mistress and by reading various banned revolutionary writings and books, such as those written by Thomas Jefferson. The Spanish seized Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla’s library and revoked his right to preach. In 1810, when Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was about to be arrested again he called for a revolution in a frantic speech, that began an armed uprising against the Spanish Colonial rule.